J HE JVIaGIC OP J RON AND ^TEEL
Worcester Art Muse™
February Third to Ninth
IRON AND STEEL
This exhibition is presented for the purpose
of showing how iron and steel have "been put to
many uses "by man since their origin five thousand
years ago. Our modern skyscrapers and ocean liners
are indeed far removed from the first hit of raw
iron which some ancient savage fashioned into a
rough knife, "but it is well for us to remember that
our modern buildings and ships are the products of
long years of toil and study in the chemistry and
content of iron.
Let us go back 3500 years before Christ and
trace, roughly, the history of man's most valuable
That iron tools were used in 3500 B.C. has been
proved by the samples that were found near the
pyramids in Egypt. There are three periods of iron
and steel in Europe, the first beginning with wrought
iron, made on crude forges with the use of charcoal
fires. At this time leather water bottles were used
as bellows to force air into the fires. The second
period was that of pure cast iron, and began in the
14th century. Methods of production had improved oy
this time and bellows were operated by water power.
Forges or furnaces were larger and offered closer
contact between the fuel and the iron ore. As a re-
sult more heat was obtained and purer iron was
In 1611 coke was patented for smelting, and by
1735 cast iron was made by the use of coke in the blast
furnace. In 1784 a process known as "puddling" by use
of an open hearth was introduced, thus making possible
the control of carbon content. The year 1811 saw men
making use of hitherto useless gases, rich in carbonic
oxide, which burned off the top of the furnace. The
third and final period of iron in Europe began with
Bessemer and the open hearth which employed the
exceedingly high temperature of 1500 degrees centigrade
Finally came the alloys of steel and the science of
metallurgy as they are known today.
GRATEFUL ACKNOWLEDGMENT IS MADE TO THE FOLLOWING:
The John Woodman Higgins Armory:
Pieces of Armor
Clark University: Meteorite
Mr, Percy F, Marsaw: Wrought Iron Shears
Miss Rosina Morris: Horse-shoe
HOW ART IS MADE
Film and Exhibition Program
Saturday afternoons at three o'clock
Free and open to the public.
February 3. -Films: "The Making of Wrought Iron* "
"A Visit to the Armor Gallery," and "Steel."
Exhibition: The Magic of Iron and Steel *
February 10. Films J "The Making of a Bronze Statue,"
and "Sculpture in Stone." Exhibition: Sculptor's
Tools and Sculpture in the Making,
February 17. Film: "The Making of a Stained Glass
Window," Exhibition: Stages in the Creation of
a Stained Glass Window.
February 24. Films: "The Silversmith" (the late Arthur
J. Stone of Gardner cooperated with the Museum of
Fine Arts, Boston, in making this film) a,nd "Metal
Craft." Exhibition: Art in Silver and Pewter.
March 2. Films: "The Pottery Maker" and "People of
Mexico." Exhibition: Pottery in the Making.
March 9. Films: "Clothing" and "Tapestries and How
They Are Made." Exhibition: Fashions of the Last
Two Decades, Tapestry Today.
March 16, Films: "The Temples and Tombs of Ancient
Egypt," "The Daily Life of the Egyptians- Ancient
and Modern," and "Exotic Egypt."
Exhibition: Bringing the Past to Life.
March 30. Film: "The Making of a Fresco."
Exhibition: A Fresco Painting.